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經濟學人雙語:三天周末!謝天謝地 終于星期四了(下)

作者:admin

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2017-8-2 13:52

The 26m employed Britons earn on average £90 ($112) a day.

兩千六百萬名在職的英國人每天平均能掙90鎊(112美元)。


Covering the shortfall would cost around £120bn a year, equivalent to the budget of the National Health Service.

一年里每周都少上一天班所節省的費用有一千兩百億英鎊,相當于英國國民醫療保健制度一年的預算。


The Greens' proposals encounter two problems.

但是綠黨的提議碰到兩個問題。


First, the theory.

第一個是理論方面。


They argue that the reduced hours worked by some could be redistributed to others in order to lower underemployment.

有的人提出一些人減少的工作時長將會被重新分配給其他人,以此來降低不充分就業。


They thus fall prey to the “lump of labour fallacy“, the notion that there is a fixed amount of work to be done which can be shared out in different ways to create fewer or more jobs.

這些人是深受“勞動力臃腫謬論“這一觀點困擾;其含義是,需要完成的工作總量是固定的,不過這可以通過不同的方式增加或減少就業機會。


In fact, if people worked fewer hours, demand would drop, and so fewer working hours would be on offer.


但事實上,如果人們的工作時間變短,那么對勞動力的需求也會減少,所以勞動力提供的總工作時長也會減少。


Second, the cost.

第二是費用。


Increased productivity could cover some of the costs of paying a five-day wage for a four-day week, suggests Sarah Lyall of the New Economics Foundation, a think-tank.

智囊團機構新經濟基金會的Sarah Lyall表示,提高的生產率可能會由于在四天工作日里支付相當于五天工作日的工資而增加了成本。


She points to a Glasgow marketing company that did just that, and experienced a 30% leap in productivity.

她也指出Glasgow營銷公司也實行這個政策,他們的生產率也上升了30%。


But that is an astonishing increase to expect across the board.

但是各個方面的成本都有了驚人的增長。


The Greens say they are in the early stages of exploring the idea and have not yet produced firm costings.

綠黨說他們對這個想法的探索還處于初級階段,也并沒有具體分析這個政策是否會影響生產型企業的成本核算。


It might be useful to do so before next month's local elections.

在下個月的大選前,他們可能會在黨內實行這個政策。


That leaves little time—but presumably the party's policymakers will raise their productivity accordingly.

雖然工作時間會減少,但是黨內的決策者大概將會相應的提高效率。

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